Could North Carolina’s new definition of antisemitism serve as a blueprint for other states, or does it risk stifling free speech?

The Goal of This Discussion

This blog post will explore the implications of the newly passed Shalom Act in North Carolina, which aims to adopt a new definition of antisemitism under state law. Through an analysis of the bill’s content, public reactions, and expert insights, we will examine the potential impacts on both community safety and free speech.

Introduction to the Shalom Act

On May 8, 2024, the North Carolina House passed House Bill 942, known as the Shalom Act, in a near-unanimous decision. This legislative move seeks to redefine antisemitism within state law, aligning with definitions that have been adopted by several other states and countries. This effort is largely a response to increasing antisemitic incidents and aims to enhance the tools available for education and law enforcement to address such hate crimes.

The Bill’s Provisions and Public Response

The Shalom Act incorporates the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance’s (IHRA) working definition of antisemitism, which includes examples that some critics argue could conflate criticism of Israel with antisemitism. For instance, one of the examples labels claims that the state of Israel’s existence is a racist endeavor as antisemitic, sparking concerns among various Jewish and Muslim groups about potential impacts on free speech.

Democratic Rep. Caleb Rudow highlighted that the definition is intended as a judicial tool in hate crime cases rather than a means to limit speech. This perspective underscores the act’s educational purpose and its role in fostering awareness about antisemitism without infringing on constitutional rights.

Insights from Attorney Julian Doby

Southport, NC Attorney Julian Doby provides a legal perspective on the nuances of the Shalom Act. “This legislation attempts a delicate balance between combating hate and preserving free speech. It’s pivotal that the judicial application focuses on intent and context, rather than using this definition to broadly police speech,” explains Doby. This insight emphasizes the importance of careful legal interpretation to avoid unintended consequences.


The Shalom Act represents a significant legislative effort to combat rising antisemitism through clearer legal definitions and increased awareness. While its intent is clear, the execution and judicial use of this new definition will be crucial in ensuring it serves its purpose without compromising fundamental freedoms.

We will continue to monitor the outcomes of this legislation and its effects on both the Jewish community and the broader discourse surrounding free speech in North Carolina.


This blog post is for educational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice. For specific legal concerns, please consult a qualified attorney.